Digital Light Processing of Zirconia Suspensions Containing Photocurable Monomer/Camphor Vehicle for Dental Applications

Seo Young Yang, Young Hag Koh, Hyoun Ee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study reports the utility of solid camphor as a novel diluent in photocurable hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) monomer to manufacture 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ) components for dental applications by digital light processing (DLP). The use of a 65 wt% HDDA–35 wt% camphor solution allowed 4Y-PSZ suspensions to have reasonably low viscosities (1399 ± 55.8 mPa·s at a shear rate of 75 s−1), measured by a cone/plate viscometer, at a high solid loading of 48 vol%, where 4Y-PSZ particles prepared by calcination of as-received 4Y-PSZ granules, followed by a ball-milling process, were used with assistance of a dispersant. These 4Y-PSZ suspensions could be successfully applied to our custom-made DLP machine for manufacturing 4Y-PSZ components. To this end, several processing parameters, including layer thickness of 4Y-PSZ suspension, UV illumination time for layer-by-layer photocuring process, and initial dimensions of 4Y-PSZ objects, were tightly controlled. As sintering temperature increased from 1300 °C to 1500 °C, relative density and grain size of 4Y-PSZ objects increased, and cubic phase content also increased. Thus, after sintering at the highest temperature of 1500 °C for 3 h, high mechanical properties (biaxial flexural strength = 911 ± 40.7 MPa, hardness = 1371 ± 14.4 Hv) and reasonably high optical transmittance (translucency parameter = 7.77 ± 0.32, contrast ratio = 0.809 ± 0.007), evaluated by a spectrophotometer, were obtained due to a high relative density (97.2 ± 1.38%), which would be useful for dental applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number402
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (Contract No.20001155 (2022), Development of highly Transluscent/Tough Ceramic Materials and Manufacturing Technique for tailor-made Crown) funded by the Ministry of Trade, industry & Energy (MI, Republic of Korea).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • 3D printing
  • dental crowns
  • digital light processing
  • photopolymerization
  • zirconia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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