Directional photofluidization lithography: Micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials

Seungwoo Lee, Hong Suk Kang, Jung Ki Park

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

238 Citations (Scopus)


This review demonstrates directional photofluidization lithography (DPL), which makes it possible to fabricate a generic and sophisticated micro/nanoarchitecture that would be difficult or impossible to attain with other methods. In particular, DPL differs from many of the existing micro/nanofabrication methods in that the post-treatment (i.e., photofluidization), after the preliminary fabrication process of the original micro/nanostructures, plays a pivotal role in the various micro/nanostructural evolutions including the deterministic reshaping of architectures, the reduction of structural roughness, and the dramatic enhancement of pattern resolution. Also, DPL techniques are directly compatible with a parallel and scalable micro/nanofabrication. Thus, DPL with such extraordinary advantages in micro/nanofabrication could provide compelling opportunities for basic micro/nanoscale science as well as for general technology applications. Directional photofluidization enables structural evolution toward high resolution with various shapes, unprecedented complexity, and lower edge-roughness by virtue of the reversible and directional motions of azo-materials (a path-changing approach). This reversible and fluidic evolution of micro/nanostructures provides both micro/nanostructural designs beyond those that can be achieved using established lithographic approaches and excellent motivation for novel photonic properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2069-2103
Number of pages35
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr 24


  • azobenzene
  • directional photofluidization
  • micro/nanofabrication
  • plasmonics
  • soft lithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Directional photofluidization lithography: Micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this