Disc hemorrhages and their risk factors in an urban South Korean population

Han Seok Park, Chungkwon Yoo, Joon Mo Kim, Ki Chul Sung, Seong Hee Shim, Jeong Hun Bae, Chul Young Choi, Chan Yun Kim, Ki Ho Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disc hemorrhage (DH) and evaluate its related risk factors in an urban South Korean population. Methods. This retrospective cross-sectional study included subjects who underwent health screening at the Health Screening Center of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from August 2012 to July 2013. All fundus photographs were first reviewed by two ophthalmologists and then by two glaucoma specialists and one retina specialist to determine the presence of DHs. In addition to fundus photographs, each participant completed systemic examination as well as sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaires. Results. Fundus photographs were available for 164,029/168,044 (97.61%) subjects 20 years and older. The prevalence of DH was 226/164,029 (0.14%; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.16) per subject. A large proportion (61.5%) of eyes with DH had localized wedge-shaped retinal nerve fiber layer defects indicative of glaucoma. There was also a slight increase in DH prevalence with age, but no other statistically significant associations were found. Conclusions. The prevalence of DH was 0.14% in urban South Korean subjects 20 years and older. Older age and the presence of glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer defects were associated with higher prevalence of DH. These findings suggest that the presence of a DH in an eye implies a high likelihood of glaucoma, although its absence does not indicate that glaucoma is absent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)700-706
Number of pages7
JournalOptometry and Vision Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun 3
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Optometry.


  • epidemiology
  • glaucoma
  • optic disc hemorrhage
  • retinal nerve fiber layer
  • risk factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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