Although several studies have investigated the effects of Sb contamination on surrounding environments and indigenous microorganisms, little is known about the effect of co-contamination of Sb and toxic metal(loid)s. In this study, the occurrence of Sb and other toxic metal(loid)s near an operating Sb refinery and near-field landfill site were investigated. Topsoil samples near the refinery had high Sb levels (∼3250 mg kg−1) but relatively low concentrations of other toxic metal(loid)s. However, several soil samples taken at greater depth from the near-field landfill site contained high concentrations of As and Pb, as well as extremely high Sb contents (∼21,400 mg kg−1). X-ray absorption fine structure analysis showed that Sb in the soils from both sites was present as Sb(V) in the form of tripuhyite (FeSbO4), a stable mineral. Three-dimensional principal coordinate analysis showed that microbial community compositions in samples with high toxic metal(loid)s concentrations were significantly different from other samples and had lower microbial populations (∼104 MPN g−1). Sequential extraction results revealed that Sb is present primarily in the stable residual fraction (∼99 %), suggesting low Sb bioavailability. However, microbial redundancy analysis suggested that the more easily extractable Pb might be the major factor controlling microbial community compositions at the site.
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© 2020 Elsevier B.V.
- Sb distribution
- Sb refining procedure
- Soil microbial community
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis