Dual-curing behavior and scratch characteristics of hydroxyl functionalized urethane methacrylate oligomer for automotive clearcoats

Seung M. Noh, Jae W. Lee, Joon H. Nam, Ki H. Byun, Jong M. Park, Hyun W. Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


UV-thermal dual-curable, hydroxyl- and methacrylate-functionalized urethane oligomers with different contents of unsaturated double bonds and hydroxyl groups have been synthesized and incorporated into automotive clearcoats to investigate their curing and scratch behaviors. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) and FT-IR analyses were performed to observe the variation of the crosslinking networks that resulted from the chemical reactions by UV and thermal dual-curing operations with varying curing conditions, such as UV dose, thermal curing time, thermal curing temperature, and curing sequence. The scratch behaviors of dual-cured automotive clearcoats were analyzed via nano-scratch tests, accompanied with scratch images simultaneously visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and chemical properties, such as impact resistance, pencil hardness, acid-etch resistance, and stone-chip resistance, of dual-curable clearcoats were also compared with those of UV mono-cure and 1 K thermal-cure clearcoats. The results clearly showed that the dual-curing process induced a considerably higher degree of crosslinking for the cured clearcoats prepared from the dual-curable oligomers, melamine crosslinkers, and photoinitiators. Their mechanical properties including scratch resistance were also noticeably improved via the UV-thermal curing sequence, which led to an increased conversion rate of double bonds compared with clearcoats produced using the thermal-UV curing sequence. The best conditions for high crosslinking density as well as high hardness and modulus were 2400 mJ/cm 2 at 150 °C for 10 min in the UV-thermal curing process. This result was corroborated from the reaction kinetics and surface images of the scratched clearcoats captured by SEM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-269
Number of pages13
JournalProgress in Organic Coatings
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by research grant from the Korean National Cleaner Production-Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program ( KC-000578 ) and the Human Resources Development of Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP: No. 20114010203050 ).

Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Automotive clearcoat
  • Double bond conversion
  • Mechanical properties
  • Scratch resistance
  • UV and thermal dual curing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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