Dynamic information for the recognition of conversational expressions

Douglas W. Cunningham, Christian Wallraven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Communication is critical for normal, everyday life. During a conversation, information is conveyed in a number of ways, including through body, head, and facial changes. While much research has examined these latter forms of communication, the majority of it has focused on static representations of a few, supposedly universal expressions. Normal conversations, however, contain a very wide variety of expressions and are rarely, if ever, static. Here, we report several experiments that show that expressions that use head, eye, and internal facial motion are recognized more easily and accurately than static versions of those expressions. Moreover, we demonstrate conclusively that this dynamic advantage is due to information that is only available over time, and that the temporal integration window for this information is at least 100 ms long.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Vision
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Communication
  • Dynamic information
  • Facial expressions
  • Perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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