EEG-based Driver Drowsiness Classification via Calibration-Free Framework with Domain Generalization

Dong Young Kim, Dong Kyun Han, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seong Whan Lee

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

7 Citations (Scopus)


Drowsy driving causes severe road traffic accidents and significantly threatens road driving. Recently, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based drowsiness state classification has gained attention in the field of brain-computer interface (BCI). Because of the inter-and intra-subject variability of EEG signals, EEG-based drowsiness state classification is still challenging in developing an estimator applicable to unseen subjects. Generally, calibration sessions are required to tune the model with subject-specific data. In this paper, we propose an EEG-based driver drowsiness state (i.e., alert and drowsy) classification framework that improves the generalization performance to unseen subjects. Style features of multi-domain instances are mixed to generate unseen domains, and the distance of labels within classes is minimized to learn robust representations. Experiments were conducted on EEG data acquired from a drowsy driving experiment in a simulated-driving environment. Our proposed framework achieved an accuracy of 77.26%, an F1-score of 0.6266, and a recall of 0.6813 across eleven subjects in leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The experimental results showed an improvement in the generalization performance for novel target subjects in driver drowsiness state classification and demonstrated the potential for calibration-free BCI.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2022 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2022 - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781665452588
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event2022 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2022 - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 2022 Oct 92022 Oct 12

Publication series

NameConference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
ISSN (Print)1062-922X


Conference2022 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2022
Country/TerritoryCzech Republic

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partly supported by Institute of Information communications Technology Planning Evaluation (IITP) grants funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2017-0-00451: Development of BCI based Brain and Cognitive Computing Technology for Recognizing User’s Intentions using Deep Learning, No. 2019-0-00079: Artificial Intelligence Graduate School Program, Korea University, No. 2021-0-02068: Artificial Intelligence Innovation Hub, and No. 2021-0-00866: Development of BMI application technology based on multiple bio-signals for autonomous vehicle drivers).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 IEEE.


  • Brain-computer interface
  • Domain generalization
  • Driver drowsiness state classification
  • Electroencephalogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction


Dive into the research topics of 'EEG-based Driver Drowsiness Classification via Calibration-Free Framework with Domain Generalization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this