Effect of capsaicinoids in hot pepper powder on microbial community and free sugar during kimchi fermentation

Young Bae Chung, Hyojung Lee, Sojeong Hwang, Hye Young Seo, Hyung Joo Suh, Kyungae Jo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: Effect of capsaicinoids in hot pepper powder (HP) contains various chemical compounds, including capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which are the main ingredients of the spicy taste. To evaluate the effect of HP on the microbial community in kimchi fermentation, kimchi [kimchi-HP, kimchi-HPE and kimchi-HPER made by adding HP, HP alcohol extract (HPE) and HPE residues (HPER)] was fermented at 4°C for 28 days. The pH and titratable acidity of the samples and the number of bacteria changed with fermentation time. Kimchi-HPER had significantly higher total viable and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) than other samples after 28 days of fermentation. The capsaicinoids content did not differ before and after fermentation, whereas the major free sugar content decreased, and the mannitol content increased. The principal component analysis (PCA) biplots showed similar patterns between kimchi-HP and -HPE. It was confirmed that Leuconostoc and Weissella were related to the initial fermentation, and Lactobacillus was involved in late fermentation. Kimchi-HP and kimchi-HPE increased the ratio of Lactobacillus sakei and decreased that of Leuconostoc mesenteroides compared to kimchi-HPER. Overall, these results revealed that capsaicinoids contained in HP affected Lactobacillus proliferation and mannitol increase during kimchi fermentation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3195-3204
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Food Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the WIKIM International Research Program (KE2002‐2‐2) through the World Institute of Kimchi, funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning, Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Institute of Food Technologists®.


  • free sugars
  • hot pepper powder
  • kimchi
  • microbial community

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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