Effect of change of sand properties on travel distance of ricocheted debris

Yoon Keon Kim, Woo Chun Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The debris from exploded buildings can ricochet after colliding with the ground, thus increasing the debris travel distance and danger from any associated impacts or collisions. To reduce this danger, the travel distance of ricocheted debris must be accurately predicted. This study analyzed the change in the travel distance of ricocheted concrete debris relative to changes in the properties of a sand medium. Direct shear tests were conducted to measure the change in internal friction angle as a function of temperature and water content of the sand. Finite element analysis (FEA) was then applied to these variables to predict the speed and angle of the debris after ricochet. The FEA results were compared with results of low-speed ricochet experiments, which employed variable temperature and water content. The travel distance of the debris was calculated using MATLAB, via trajectory equations considering the drag coefficient. As the internal friction angle decreased, the shear stress decreased, leading to deeper penetration of the debris into the sand. As the loss of kinetic energy increased, the velocity and travel distance of the ricocheted debris decreased. Changes in the ricochet velocity and travel distance of the debris, according to changes in the internal friction angle, indicated that the debris was affected by the environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1486-1495
Number of pages10
JournalDefence Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was financially supported by the Foundation Research Program [grant number UD170027GD ] of the Agency for Defense Development and the Defense Acquisition Program Administration of the Republic of Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 China Ordnance Society


  • Environmental change
  • Exploded debirs
  • Internal friction angle
  • Ricochet
  • Sand
  • Temperature
  • Travel distance
  • Water content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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