The solid-state, cross-interaction between the Ni layer on the component side and the Cu pad on the printed circuit board (PCB) side in ball grid array (BGA) solder joints was investigated by employing Ni(15 μm)/Sn(65 μm)/Cu ternary diffusion couples. The ternary diffusion couples were prepared by sequentially electroplating Sn and Ni on a Cu foil and were aged isothermally at 150, 180, and 200°C. The growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer on the Ni side was coupled with that on the Cu side by the mass flux across the Sn layer that was caused by the difference in the Ni content between the (Cu 1-x Ni x ) 6Sn 5 layer on the Ni side and the (Cu 1-y Ni y ) 6Sn 5 layer on the Cu side. As the consequence of the coupling, the growth rate of the (Cu 1-x Ni x ) 6 Sn 5 layer on the Ni side was rapidly accelerated by decreasing Sn layer thickness and increasing aging temperature. Owing to the cross-interaction with the top Ni layer, the growth rate of the (Cu 1-y Ni y ) 6Sn 5 layer on the Cu side was accelerated at 150°C and 180°C but was retarded at 200°C, while the growth rate of the Cu 3Sn layer was always retarded. The growth kinetic model proposed in an attempt to interpret the experimental results was able to reproduce qualitatively all of the important experimental observations pertaining to the growth of the IMC layers in the Ni/Sn/Cu diffusion couple.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a Korea Research Foundation Grant (KRF-2005-041-D00411) funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD).
- Ball-grid-array solder joint
- Growth kinetics
- Ni/Sn/Cu diffusion couple
- Solid-state cross-interaction
- Ternary intermetallic compound
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Materials Chemistry