Objective: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used electronic nicotine delivery systems and are a relatively new product designed for smoking cessation. The market scale of electronic cigarettes is growing rapidly, but the potential impact of e-cigarettes on public health has not yet been verified. In this study, we examined the effect of e-liquids on a human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC) line. Material and methods: The main components of e-liquids are propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin and flavoring agents with or without nicotine. We analyzed 73 bottles of e-liquids from 12 different manufacturers, evaluated the trace elements in e-liquids, and identified the cytotoxicity of e-liquids on HMEECs in the presence or absence of nicotine. Results: In the trace elements analysis, nickel, arsenic, cadmium, and lead were detected in the e-liquids. E-liquids without nicotine decreased cell viability, and the average IC 50 value of total e-liquids (n = 73) was 2.48 ± 0.93%. Among the different flavors, menthol-flavored e-liquids significantly reduced cell viability, and their average IC 50 value (n = 28) was 1.85 ± 0.80%. The average IC 50 values were distinct among manufacturers and the proportion of the solvents. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that e-cigarettes influence and reduce human middle ear cell viability even without the application of nicotine. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of e-liquids was affected by the flavoring agents.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology|
|Publication status||Published - 2018 Jun|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea ( NRF-2015R1C1A1A01054397 )+ HURF-201614 .
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
- Electronic cigarette
- Heavy metals
- Human middle ear epithelial cells
- Otitis media
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health