We analyzed the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on outcomes in 315 anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy-treated patients with non-M3 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Patients were classified as follows: no G-CSF administration during induction (no G-CSF group; 112 patients); administration immediately upon neutropenia onset (absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) < 1000/μL), but before febrile neutropenia (preemptive group; 74 patients); and administration following febrile neutropenia development (therapeutic group; 129 patients). G-CSF users had a shorter time to ANC recovery than the no G-CSF group (p < 0.001). The chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (CIFN) duration was significantly shorter in the preemptive group than in other groups (p < 0.001). The incidence of CIFN was not significantly different between preemptive and non-G-CSF users (84.8% versus 82.4%). Preemptive G-CSF administration modestly improved treatment-related mortality (TRM), compared with no G-CSF administration (p = 0.076 in multivariate analysis). G-CSF administration did not affect relapse-free or overall survivals or the cumulative relapse incidence among the groups. In conclusion, preemptive G-CSF administration reduced CIFN duration and modestly improved TRM without affecting chemotherapy outcomes. These effects were not observed in the therapeutic group; therefore, initiation of G-CSF during induction therapy before the development of febrile neutropenia may be desirable.
- Acute myelogenous leukemia
- Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
- Treatment-related mortality
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research