Effect of Oxygen Blowing on Copper Droplet Formation and Emulsification Phenomena in the Converting Process

Jooho Park, Joonho Lee, Joo Hyun Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: The effect of oxygen on interfacial phenomena between slag and copper melt was investigated at 1400 °C. The removal of impurities (iron and silicon) in the copper melt during oxygen blowing was confirmed. Also, it was revealed that composition change of the slag occurs due to the oxygen potential in the slag depending on the oxygen injection method. In addition, over-blowing of oxygen after removing impurities is a factor that significantly changes the surface tension of molten copper and slag. Over blown oxygen increases the instability of the interface by reducing interfacial tension between slag and liquid copper. Due to lowered interfacial tension and increased instability, copper droplets can be mixed into slag phase which induces copper loss. Oxygen blowing and/or bubbling is involved in chemical and weak physical reactions in the gas-slag-metal multiphase system, which should be carefully controlled because it is significant factor affecting the recovery rate of the metal. Graphical Abstract: Overall reactions and slag/metal interfacial phenomena in impurity removal regime and over-blowing regime for (a) bottom blowing and (b) top blowing conditions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)831-847
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Sustainable Metallurgy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was partly supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP, Grant Number 20217510100080), and also partly supported by the Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT, Grant Number P0002019) for the Competency Development Program for Industry Specialists, funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE), Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.


  • Interface instability
  • Interfacial tension
  • Metal droplets
  • Oxygen blowing
  • Surface tension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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