Effect of pressure cooking on aflatoxin B1 in rice

Won Park Je, Young Bae Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of pressure cooking on aflatoxin residues in polished rice was conducted to determine reduction of aflatoxin and mutagenic potentials. Three rice lots consisting of naturally contaminated, A. parasiticus-infested, and aflatoxin-spiked rice were steamed by ordinary and pressure cookers after they were washed with water. They were chemically analyzed for aflatoxins using a silica solid phase extraction tube and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection (FD), and the presence of aflatoxin residues was confirmed using HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS). An in vitro mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 was employed to verify the results based on chemical analyses. The aflatoxin loss (78-88%) was notable after pressure cooking, and the reduction of aflatoxin-induced mutagenic potential (68-78%) was in good agreement with the HPLC results. It can be concluded that Koreans are safe from the aflatoxin-related risk if a pressure cooker is employed for cooking rice. The average Korean daily intake of aflatoxin through the consumption of staple rice would fall to 0.15 ng/kg bw/day, which would not exceed the established tolerable daily intake (0.40 ng/kg bw/day).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2431-2435
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Mar 22


  • Aflatoxins
  • Pressure cooking
  • Salmonella mutagenicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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