Effect of Probiotic-Fortified Infant Formula on Infant Gut Health and Microbiota Modulation

Ju Young Eor, Chul Sang Lee, Sung Ho Moon, Ju Young Cheon, Duleepa Pathiraja, Byeonghyeok Park, Min Jae Shin, Jae Young Kim, Sangjong Kim, Youngbae Noh, Yunhan Kim, In Geol Choi, Sae Hun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Compared to infant formula, breast milk is the best source of nutrition for infants; it not only improves the neonatal intestinal function, but also regulates the immune system and gut microbiota composition. However, probiotic-fortified infant formula may further enhance the infant gut environment by overcoming the limitations of traditional infant formula. We investigated the probiotic formula administration for one month by comparing 118 Korean infants into the following three groups: infants in each group fed with breast milk (50), probiotic formula (35), or placebo formula-fed group (33). Probiotic formula improved stool consistency and defecation frequency compared to placebo formula-fed group. The probiotic formula helped maintaining the level of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), which had remarkably decreased over time in placebo formula-fed infants (compared to weeks 0 and 4). Moreover, probiotic formula decreased the acidity of stool and considerably increased the butyrate concentration. Furthermore, the fecal microbiota of each group was evaluated at weeks 0 and 4. The microbial composition was distinct between each groups, and the abundance of health-promoting bacteria increased in the probiotic formula compared to the placebo formula-fed group. In summary, supplementation of probiotic infant formula can help optimize the infant gut environment, microbial composition, and metabolic activity of the microbiota, mimicking those of breast milk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-673
Number of pages15
JournalFood Science of Animal Resources
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licences/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • gut health
  • infant formula
  • microbiota
  • probiotics
  • short-chain fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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