Effect of seepage force on tunnel face stability reinforced with multi-step pipe grouting

In Mo Lee, Jae Sung Lee, Seok Woo Nam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)


Tunneling in difficult geological conditions is often inevitable especially in urban areas. Ground improvement and reinforcement techniques are required to guarantee safe tunnel excavations and/or to prevent damage to adjacent structures. The steel pipe-reinforced multi-step grouting method has been recently applied to tunnel sites as an auxiliary technique in Korea for impermeabilization in underwater tunnels as well as for reinforcement. However, this technique has been usually employed empirically without much understanding with regard to its effect on the tunnel safety. In this study, the face stability with steel pipe-reinforced multi-step grouting in underwater tunnels was evaluated by simultaneously considering two factors: one is the effective stress acting on the tunnel face calculated by limit theorem and limit equilibrium method; the other is the seepage force obtained by means of numerical analysis. This study revealed that the influence of the steel pipe-reinforced multi-step grouting on the support pressure required for the stability of the tunnel face in dry condition is not significant while there is relatively a significant reduction in seepage forces by adopting the technique in the underwater tunnel. The effect of permeability anisotropy on the seepage force acting on the tunnel face was also assessed by conducting a coupled analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)551-565
Number of pages15
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Nov


  • Face stability
  • Limit equilibrium method
  • Limit theorem
  • Seepage force
  • Steel pipe-reinforced multi-step grouting
  • Tunnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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