Effect of Substitutional Oxygen on Properties of Ti3C2Tx MXene Produced Using Recycled TiO2 Source

Aamir Iqbal, Hyerim Kim, Jung Min Oh, Jikwang Chae, Jiwoong Kim, Myungjae Kim, Tufail Hassan, Zhenguo Gao, Juyun Lee, Seon Joon Kim, Daesin Kim, Yury Gogotsi, Hanjung Kwon, Chong Min Koo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


MXenes are an emerging class of 2D materials with unique properties including metallic conductivity, mechanical flexibility, and surface tunability, which ensure their utility for diverse applications. However, the synthesis of MXenes with high crystallinity and atomic stoichiometry in a low-cost process is still challenging because of the difficulty in controlling the oxygen substitute in the precursors and final products of MXenes, which limits their academic understanding and practical applications. Here, a novel cost-effective method is reported to synthesize a highly crystalline and stoichiometric Ti3C2Tx MXene with minimum substitutional oxygen impurities by controlling the amount of excess carbon and time of high-energy milling in carbothermal reduction of recycled TiO2 source. The highest used content (2 wt%) of excess-carbon yields TiC with the highest carbon content and minimal oxygen substitutes, which leads to the Ti3AlC2 MAX phase with improved crystallinity and atomic stoichiometry, and finally Ti3C2Tx MXene with the highest electrical conductivity (11738 S cm−1) and superior electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. Additionally, the effects of carbon content and substitutional oxygen on the physical properties of TiC and Ti3AlC2 are elucidated by density-functional-theory calculations. This inexpensive TiO2-based method of synthesizing high-quality Ti3C2Tx MXene can facilitate large-scale production and thus accelerate global research on MXenes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSmall Methods
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • MXenes
  • TiO precursor
  • carbothermal reduction
  • lattice defects
  • oxygen substitution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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