Effect of the mixture preparation on the nanoparticle characteristics of gasoline direct-injection vehicles

Kwanhee Choi, Juwon Kim, Cha Lee Myung, Minho Lee, Sangil Kwon, Youngjae Lee, Simsoo Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Time-resolved nanoparticle number concentrations and size distribution characteristics were investigated in gasoline direct-injection vehicles, according to fuel preparation methods. Particle number emissions were measured using the golden particle measurement system recommended by the Particle Measurement Programme, and the particle size spectrum was determined using a DMS500 spectrometer installed at the tailpipe of the vehicles. The wall-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle exhibited the most temperature-dependent nanoparticulate matter exhaust characteristics, owing to direct accumulation of fuel on the piston head and cylinder liner and a high concentration of accumulation mode particles. The air-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle emitted particle emissions mostly during cold transient driving conditions and high acceleration, which had a weak trimodal characteristic with evenly distributed nucleation and accumulation mode particles. The spray-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle continuously discharged 105 particles/cm3 during constant-speed driving segments, because of the ultra-lean-burn operation and bulk quenching; particulate matter from the spray-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle demonstrated a strong bimodal characteristic, spreading over 10-100 nm. The particle number emissions for the gasoline direct-injection vehicles for the New European Driving Cycle test mode were 1.48 × 1012 particles/km, 6.03 × 1011 particles/km and 3.17 × 1012 particles/km for the wall-guided type, the air-guided type and the spray-guided type respectively, and none of these were able to satisfy the proposed particle number regulations for the Euro 6 standard. For gasoline direct-injection vehicles, it should be considered that engine hardware modifications, as well as energy management system calibrations and even the application of the particle filter, may be needed to meet the upcoming particulate matter number regulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1514-1524
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov


  • Gasoline direct injection
  • condensation particle counter
  • differential mobility spectrometer
  • mixture preparation
  • nanoparticle
  • solid particle number

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


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