Amorphous (Na 0.5K 0.5)NbO 3 (NKN) thin films were grown at 300 °C and subsequently annealed at 800 °C under Na 2O, K 2O and NKN atmospheres. When the annealing time was less than 50 min, K 6Nb 10.88O 30 and Na 2Nb 4O 11 secondary phases were formed in all the films. Moreover, they were also found in films annealed at 750 °C for 180 min under NKN atmosphere, indicating that they were transient phases formed when the sintering time and temperature were not sufficient. For the film annealed for 50 min under Na 2O atmosphere, an Na-excess (Na 1- xK x)NbO 3 (N 1-xK xN) phase was formed, whereas a K-excess N 1- xK xN phase was developed in the film annealed under K 2O atmosphere. On the other hand, a homogeneous NKN phase was developed in the film annealed under NKN atmosphere and this was maintained after a long period (100 min) of annealing at 800 °C. A high leakage current density and a small dielectric constant ( r) were observed for films annealed under Na 2O and K 2O atmospheres due to the evaporation of K 2O and Na 2O, respectively. Moreover, they exhibited a small remnant polarization (P r) and a small coercive electric field (E c). On the other hand, the film annealed under NKN atmosphere exhibited a very low leakage current density of 2.6 × 10 -9 A cm -2 at 0.2 MV cm -1 and had good ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of r = 620, P r = 11.7 μC cm -2, E c = 133.8 kV cm -1 and d 33 = 74 pm V -2 at 50 kV cm -1.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Fusion Research Program for Green Technologies through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
- NKN thin film
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Polymers and Plastics
- Metals and Alloys