Copper scales formed over 6-months during exposure to ground, surface and saline waters were characterized by EDS, XRD and XPS. Scale color and hardness were light red-brown-black/hard for high alkalinity and blue-green/soft for high SO4 or Cl waters. Cl was present in surface or saline copper scales. The Cu/Cu2O ratio decreased with time indicating an e transfer copper corrosion mechanism. Cu2O, CuO, and Cu(OH)2 dominated the top 0.5-1 A° scale indicating continuous corrosion. Cu2O oxidation to CuO increased with alkalinity, and depended on time and pH. Total copper release was predicted using a Cu(OH)2 model.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Support for this research was provided by Tampa Bay Water (TBW), and AWWA Research Foundation (AwwaRF). The authors specially acknowledge Roy Martinez, AwwaRF Senior Account Officer, who was the Project Officer, and Chris Owen, TBW Quality Assurance Officer. The TBW Member Governments: Pinellas County, Hillsborough County, Pasco County, Tampa, St. Petersburg, and New Port Richey; and the AwwaRF Project Advisory Committee are recognized for their review and recommendations. Pick Talley, Robert Powell, Dennis Marshall and Oz Wiesner from Pinellas County, and Dr. Luke Mulford from Hillsborough County are also specifically recognized for their contributions. UCF Environmental Engineering graduate students, especially Jorge Arevalo and faculty who worked on this project are recognized for their efforts.
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- A. Copper
- B. Modelling studies
- B. XPS
- B. XRD
- C. Corrosion potential
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Science(all)