Effects of natural and calcined poultry waste on Cd, Pb and As mobility in contaminated soil

Jung Eun Lim, Mahtab Ahmad, Adel R.A. Usman, Sang Soo Lee, Weon Tai Jeon, Sang Eun Oh, Jae E. Yang, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


The reuse of waste materials as soil additives could be a welcome development in soil remediation. The mobility of Cd, Pb and As in a contaminated soil was investigated using natural and calcined poultry wastes (eggshell and chicken bone), CaCO3 and CaO at different application rates (0, 1, 3 and 5 %). The chemical composition accompanied with mineralogical composition indicated that CaCO3 and CaO were the major components in natural and calcined eggshells, respectively, while hydroxyapatite (HAP) dominated the natural and calcined chicken bones. The results showed that soil pH tended to increase in response to increasing application rates of all soil additives. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing Cd, Pb and As mobility was assessed by means of chemical extractions with 0. 1 N HCl for Cd and Pb or 1 N HCl for As, according to Korean Standard Test (KST) method. Both calcined eggshell and chicken bone were equally effective with CaO or CaCO3 in reducing the concentration of 0. 1 N HCl-extractable Cd from 6. 17 mg kg-1 to below warning level of 1. 5 mg kg-1, especially at the highest application rate. The application of calcined eggshell, CaO and CaCO3 also decreased the concentration of 0. 1 N HCl-extractable Pb from 1,012 mg kg-1 to below warning level of 100 mg kg-1. The Pb concentration decreased significantly with an increasing application rate of chicken bone, but remained above warning level even at the highest application rate. On the contrary, natural and calcined chicken bones led to a significant increase in the mobility of As when compared with the control soil. These findings illustrate that calcined eggshell in particular is equally effective as pure chemical additives in stabilizing Cd and Pb in a contaminated agricultural soil. The presence of As in metal-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration when applying phosphate-containing materials as soil additives, because phosphate can compete with arsenate on adsorption sites and result in As mobilization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-20
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1B3001409) and by Korea Ministry of Environment as ‘‘Geo-Advanced Innovative Action Project (No.172-112-011)’’. The instrumental analysis was partly supported by the Korea Basic Science Institute, the Central Laboratory and Environment Research Institute of Kangwon National University in Korea.


  • Chicken bone
  • Eggshell
  • Immobilization
  • Lead
  • Soil additives
  • Waste recycling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Pollution
  • Geology
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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