Effects of Pd(P) thickness on the microstructural evolution between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Ni(P)/Pd(P)/Au surface finish during the reflow process

Bo Mook Chung, Yong Ho Baek, Jaeho Choi, Joo Youl Huh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The microstructural evolution between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder and Ni(P)/Pd(P)/Au finish during the reflow process was investigated for various Pd(P) thicknesses (0 μm to 0.6 μm). The reflow process was carried out in a belt-conveying reflow oven with peak temperature of 260°C. In the early stages of the reflow process, the Pd(P) layer either dissolved or spalled in the form of (Pd,Ni)Sn4 into the molten solder, leaving behind an Ni 2SnP/Ni3P bilayer on the Ni(P) layer. From the dissolution of the spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn4 particles during the reflow process, the solubility of Pd in the molten SAC305 solder in the reflow process was estimated to be 0.18 wt.% to 0.25 wt.%. Regardless of the ratio of solder volume to pad opening size, the Ni2SnP layer that formed in the early stage of reflow had a significant influence on the subsequent formation and growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 at the solder interface. As the Ni 2SnP layer became thicker with increasing Pd(P) thickness, the formation of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 became increasingly sluggish and occurred only at locations where the Ni2SnP layer was locally thin or discontinuous, leading to a discontinuous morphology of (Cu,Ni) 6Sn5. This was attributed to the Ni2SnP layer that became an increasingly effective barrier to Ni diffusion with increasing thickness. Based on the experimental results, this study suggests detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of the Pd(P) thickness on the morphology and growth of the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formed during the reflow process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3348-3358
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical support of KPM Tech during the course of this study. This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant (No. 2010-0014480) and Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) Grant (No. 20104010100640) funded by MEST and MKE, respectively, of the Korea Government.


  • Diffusion barrier
  • ENEPIG surface finish
  • Interfacial reaction
  • NiSnP
  • Sn-Ag-Cu

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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