Effects of Sphingomyelin-Containing Milk Phospholipids on Skin Hydration in UVB-Exposed Hairless Mice

Yejin Ahn, Min Guk Kim, Kyungae Jo, Ki Bae Hong, Hyung Joo Suh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ultraviolet (UV) exposure cause skin barrier dysfunction, which leads to dry skin. In this study, the skin moisturizing effect of sphingomyelin-containing milk phospholipids in UV-induced hairless mice was evaluated. Hairless mice were irradiated with UVB for eight weeks, and milk phospholipids (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) were admin-istered daily. Milk phospholipids suppressed UV-induced increase in erythema and skin thickness, decreased transepidermal water loss, and increased skin moisture. Milk phospholipids increased the expression of filaggrin, involucrin, and aquaporin3 (AQP3), which are skin moisture-related factors. Additionally, hyaluronic acid (HA) content in the skin tissue was maintained by regulating the expression of HA synthesis-and degradation-related enzymes. Milk phospholipids alleviated UV-induced decrease in the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxidase dismutase1 and 2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase1. Moreover, ROS levels were reduced by regulating heme ox-ygenase-1 (HO-1), an ROS regulator, through milk phospholipid-mediated activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Collectively, sphingomyelin-containing milk phospholip-ids contributed to moisturizing the skin by maintaining HA content and reducing ROS levels in UVB-irradiated hairless mice, thereby, minimizing damage to the skin barrier caused by photoag-ing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2545
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This research was supported by Solus Biotech Co., Ltd (Yongin, Korea) and Holistic Bio Co., Ltd., Korea (Seongnam, Korea). The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Solus Biotech Co., Ltd. (Yongin, Korea) and Holistic Bio Co., Ltd. (Seongnam, Korea) (Q2026771).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Nrf2
  • hyaluronic acid
  • milk phospholipids
  • skin hydration
  • sphingomyelin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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