Effects of steelmaking slag and moisture on electrical properties of concrete

Se Hee Hong, Tian Feng Yuan, Jin Seok Choi, Young Soo Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Strain sensors can indicate the conditions of concrete structures, but these sensors are only capable of measuring local behaviors of materials. To solve this problem, researchers have introduced conductive materials that can monitor the overall behavior of concrete structures. Steelmaking slag, which contains large amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3), is conductive, and researchers have considered the addition of this material to improve concrete monitoring. In this study, mechanical and electrical properties of concrete containing steelmaking slag as a binder were evaluated. As the incorporation of steelmaking slag increased, the setting times were delayed, but the compressive strengths were similar within the replacement ratio of 15%. It was found that the addition of steelmaking slag with Fe2O3, the main ingredient of magnetite (Fe3O4), improved the electrical resistivity, piezoresistivity, and sensitivity of the concrete. Drying of the concretes resulted in an increase in electrical resistance and fractional change in resistivity (FCR). Expansion of steelmaking slag, due to contacting of free CaO and moisture under repeated loads, resulted in cracks in the concrete and affected the gauge factor (GF). This study demonstrates the possibility that the addition of steelmaking slag as a binder may provide an economical and environmentally-friendly solution to concrete strain monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2675
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (10063488, Development of Earthquake Resisting Reinforced Concrete using Grade 700 MPa Reinforcing Bars for Enhancement of Seismic Safety) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MI, Korea).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors.


  • Compressive strength
  • Electrical piezoresistivity
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Electrical sensitivity
  • Setting times
  • Steelmaking slag

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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