Effects of Switchable DOF for Mid-Air Manipulation in Immersive Virtual Environments

Myoung Gon Kim, Jung Hyun Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


In the context of mid-air manipulation, this paper presents the effects of allowing the user to dynamically switch between 1DOF, 2DOF, and 3DOF operations. Such “manipulation with switchable DOF” has been widely used in commercial graphics packages and is increasingly being adopted for virtual reality editing, where the 3D scene is constructed through mid-air interaction in immersive virtual environments. However, its effectiveness and advantages/disadvantages have not been investigated. This paper compares “manipulation with switchable DOF” with “manipulations with DOF separation,” which allows only 1DOF operations, and “manipulation without DOF separation,” which provides 3DOF operations. Using translation, rotation, and scaling, three methods were evaluated in terms of completion time and precision. The experiment results showed that “manipulation with switchable DOF” outperformed “manipulation with DOF separation” in terms of completion time whereas three methods were comparable in terms of precision. “Manipulation with switchable DOF” was further analyzed, and the results showed that the more 3DOF operations led to the shorter completion time and the more 1DOF operations led to the higher precision.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1147-1159
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug 9

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (No. NRF2016-R1A2B3014319 and NRF-2017M3C4A7066316).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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