Effects of thawing and frying methods on the formation of acrylamide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chicken meat

Jong Sun Lee, Ji Won Han, Munyhung Jung, Kwang Won Lee, Myung Sub Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


Air frying is commonly used as a substitute for deep-fat frying. However, few studies have examined the effect of air frying on the formation of potential carcinogens in foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate the formation of acrylamide and four types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air-fried and deep-fat-fried chicken breasts, thighs, and wings thawed using different methods, i.e., by using a microwave or a refrigerator, or by water immersion. The acrylamide and PAHs were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Deep-fat-fried chicken meat had higher acrylamide (n.d.–6.19 µg/kg) and total PAH (2.64–3.17 µg/kg) air-fried chicken meat (n.d.–3.49 µg/kg and 1.96–2.71 µg/kg). However, the thawing method did not significantly affect the formation of either acrylamide or PAHs. No significant differences in the acrylamide contents were observed among the chicken meat parts, however, the highest PAH contents were found in chicken wings. Thus, the results demonstrated that air frying could reduce the formation of acrylamide and PAHs in chicken meat in comparison with deep-fat frying.

Original languageEnglish
Article number573
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020 May 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Chung-Ang University Graduate Research Scholarship in 2018.

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant (18162 MFDS 053) from Ministry of Food and Drug Safety

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors.


  • Acrylamide
  • Air frying
  • Chicken
  • Deep-fat frying
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


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