Effects of transglutaminase and cooking method on the physicochemical characteristics of 3D-printable meat analogs

Yaxin Wen, Hyun Woo Kim, Hyun Jin Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Mimicking the textural properties of beef remains challenging for 3D-printable meat analogs, owing to the limited extrusive force of 3D printers. We aimed to develop 3D-printable meat analogs that imitate the physicochemical properties of beef using transglutaminase (TG, 0–8 U/g protein) and cooking (steaming, microwaving, baking, or frying). Increased TG incorporation enhanced the rheological properties of the raw meat analogs. When TG was added at 4 U/g protein, the printed meat analogs had smooth surfaces after being incubated at 25 °C for 30 min and relatively high hardnesses after 2 h of incubation. Moreover, meat analogs baked at 170 °C for 25 min had a similar hardness and springiness as beef (P > 0.05). The hardnesses of cooked beef and meat analogs were related to microstructural compactness, cooking loss, and transverse shrinkage. This study provides a method for modifying the texture of meat analogs using enzyme catalysis and cooking. Industrial relevance: Currently, the application of 3D printing in the production of meat analogs yields an elastic strength comparable to beef by implementing a fiber structure. However, modifying the textural properties of 3D-printable meat analogs to mimic the firm mouthfeel of meat is still one of the challenges that restrict the large-scale industrialization and commercialization of 3D food printing. In this study, we proposed a method for developing meat analogs, which combines enzyme treatment and suitable cooking methods, and investigated the effects of these two technologies on the physicochemical properties of 3D-printable meat analogs. This study provides essential guidance to the industry for developing meat analogs using novel protein sources and combining different technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103114
JournalInnovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • 3D printing
  • Cooking method
  • Meat analog
  • Mung bean protein isolate
  • Physicochemical characteristic
  • Transglutaminase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • General Chemistry
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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