Efficient vertical charge transport in polycrystalline halide perovskites revealed by four-dimensional tracking of charge carriers

Changsoon Cho, Sascha Feldmann, Kyung Mun Yeom, Yeoun Woo Jang, Simon Kahmann, Jun Yu Huang, Terry Chien‐Jen Yang, Mohammed Nabaz Taher Khayyat, Yuh Renn Wu, Mansoo Choi, Jun Hong Noh, Samuel D. Stranks, Neil C. Greenham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Fast diffusion of charge carriers is crucial for efficient charge collection in perovskite solar cells. While lateral transient photoluminescence microscopies have been popularly used to characterize charge diffusion in perovskites, there exists a discrepancy between low diffusion coefficients measured and near-unity charge collection efficiencies achieved in practical solar cells. Here, we reveal hidden microscopic dynamics in halide perovskites through four-dimensional (directions x, y and z and time t) tracking of charge carriers by characterizing out-of-plane diffusion of charge carriers. By combining this approach with confocal microscopy, we discover a strong local heterogeneity of vertical charge diffusivities in a three-dimensional perovskite film, arising from the difference between intragrain and intergrain diffusion. We visualize that most charge carriers are efficiently transported through the direct intragrain pathways or via indirect detours through nearby areas with fast diffusion. The observed anisotropy and heterogeneity of charge carrier diffusion in perovskites rationalize their high performance as shown in real devices. Our work also foresees that further control of polycrystal growth will enable solar cells with micrometres-thick perovskites to achieve both long optical path length and efficient charge collection simultaneously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1388-1395
Number of pages8
JournalNature Materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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