This study reports distillation-based salt removal by Ohmic heating in a hybrid process, in which electrochemical oxidation (EO) and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) are performed sequentially. In addition to anodically destructing the organics, the hybrid process also separated the sulfate-based electrolytes from treated water through distillation, without consuming external energy, owing to the temperature of the aqueous sulfate solution being elevated to 70 °C via resistive heating. The hybrid process treated organic compounds in a nonselective fashion, whereas DCMD alone did not completely reject (semi)volatile organics. Integrating EO with DCMD made the hybrid process resistant toward the wetting phenomenon; the process exhibited a steady distillate flux and salt rejection as the initial loading of amphiphilic sodium dodecyl sulfate was increased to 0.3 mM. Anodic persulfate formation from the sulfate and Ohmic heating caused an in situ yield of the sulfate radical in the feed solution; this eliminated membrane fouling, according to the observation that the water flux, which was drastically reduced upon adding alginate, was recovered immediately after an electric current was applied. The hybrid process concurrently decomposed spiked organics and removed naturally present inorganic ions in actual flue gas desulfurization wastewater, without an external supply of electrolyte and heat energy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) [grant no. NRF-2018R1A4A1022194] and the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning [grant no. 2016M3A7B4909318].
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry