Electrospinning jets and polymer nanofibers

Darrell H. Reneker, Alexander L. Yarin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1938 Citations (Scopus)


In electrospinning, polymer nanofibers are formed by the creation and elongation of an electrified fluid jet. The path of the jet is from a fluid surface that is often, but not necessarily constrained by an orifice, through a straight segment of a tapering cone, then through a series of successively smaller electrically driven bending coils, with each bending coil having turns of increasing radius, and finally solidifying into a continuous thin fiber. Control of the process produces fibers with nanometer scale diameters, along with various cross-sectional shapes, beads, branches and buckling coils or zigzags. Additions to the fluid being spun, such as chemical reagents, other polymers, dispersed particles, proteins, and viable cells, resulted in the inclusion of the added material along the nanofibers. Post-treatments of nanofibers, by conglutination, by vapor coating, by chemical treatment of the surfaces, and by thermal processing, broaden the usefulness of nanofibers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2387-2425
Number of pages39
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2008 May 13

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper is a summary of the efforts of many people, over a period of 15 years, with support from many sources. Early support from the Edison Polymer Innovation Corporation, Ohio Department of Development, enabled us to begin research on electrospinning of nanofibers. The Ohio Board of Regents provided support at critical times. The National Science Foundation has provided several grants. Current Grants are NSF/NIRT Nanofiber Manufacturing for Energy Conversion # DMI-0403835; University of Nebraska/sub of NSF Modeling-Based Control of Electrospinning Process #25-1110-0038-002; the Ohio State University/sub of NSF Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymer Biomedical Devices #60002999. The United States Army Research Office, and the Soldier Systems Command at Natick provided support through a Multi-University Research Initiative. The Coalescence Filtration Nanomaterials Consortium provided continuing support during the past decade. The members of the Consortium are the Donaldson Company, Ahlstrom Turin, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Hollingsworth and Vose, and Cummins Filtration. A.L.Y. was supported in part by the Israel Science Foundation, the Volkswagen Foundation, and by the U.S. National Science Foundation grant NIRT CBET-0609062.


  • Beads
  • Branching
  • Buckling
  • Carbon nanofibers
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Ceramic
  • Charge transport
  • Coated nanofibers
  • Collection
  • Conglutination
  • Doppler velocimeter
  • Drop
  • Droplet shape
  • Electrical bending instability
  • Electrodes
  • Encapsulation
  • Envelope cone
  • Exfoliated clay
  • Fuel cells
  • Glints
  • Hierarchical structures
  • Instabilities of jets
  • Interference colors
  • Jet
  • Meniscus
  • Metal
  • Metal nanofibers
  • Molten polymers
  • Non-Newtonian fluids
  • Polymer fluids
  • Polymer melts
  • Polymer solutions
  • Protein preservation
  • Ribbons
  • Silk nanofibers
  • Solidification
  • Spider silk
  • Straight segment
  • Structures in interplanetary space
  • Tapered segment
  • Taylor cone
  • Thermophotovoltaic device
  • Viscosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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