Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the most widely used probiotics because of its health benefits and safety. Fucose is among the most abundant hexoses in the human intestine, and LGG consumes fucose to produce energy or proliferate. However, no study has elucidated the metabolism by which LGG metabolizes fucose to produce energy, biomass, and extracellular metabolites. We used metabolomics and flux balance analysis to elucidate these mechanisms and highlight how they might affect the host. We found three different metabolic flux modes by which LGG anaerobically metabolizes fucose to produce energy and biomass. These metabolic flux modes differ from homolactic or heterolactic fermentation and account for the production of lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, acetic acid, formic acid, and carbon dioxide as a result of fucose metabolism in LGG. We also used gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify a variety of short-chain fatty acids and organic acids secreted during fucose metabolism by LGG. Our study is the first to elucidate the unique fucose metabolism of LGG in anaerobic condition.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food , Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs ( 32136–05-1-SB010 ) and the Mid-career Researcher Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea ( 2020R1A2B5B02002631 ). Facility support by the Institute of Biomedical and Food Safety at the CJ Food Safety Hall, Korea University, is acknowledged.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Flux balance analysis
- Fucose metabolism
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology