Emissions of amides (N,N-dimethylformamide and formamide) and other obnoxious volatile organic compounds from different mattress textile products

Ki Hyun Kim, Sudhir K. Pandey, Yong Hyun Kim, Jong Ryeul Sohn, J. M. Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The emission rates of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), formamide (FAd), and certain hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from seventeen mattress textile samples with four different raw material types: polyurethane (PU: n=3), polyester/polyethylene (PE: n=7), ethylene vinyl acetate (EV: n=3), and polyvinyl chloride (PC: n=4). To simulate the emissions in a heated room during winter season, measurements were made under temperature-controlled conditions, i.e., 50°C by using a mini-chamber system made of a midget impinger. Comparison of the data indicates that the patterns were greatly distinguished between DMF and FAd. PU products yielded the highest mean emission rates of DMF (2940μgm-2h-1: n=3) followed by PE (325μgm-2h-1: n=7), although its emission was not seen from other materials (EV and PC). In contrast, the pattern of FAd emission was moderately reversed from that of DMF: EV>PC>PE>PU. The results of our analysis confirm that most materials used for mattress production have the strong potential to emit either DMF or FAd in relatively large quantities while in use in children[U+05F3]s care facilities, especially in winter months. Moreover, it was also observed that an increase in temperature (25°C to 50°C) had a significant impact on the emission rate of FAd and other hazardous VOCs. In addition to the aforementioned amides, the study revealed significant emissions of a number of hazardous VOCs, such as aromatic and carbonyl compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)350-356
Number of pages7
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Apr 1


  • Emission rate
  • Formamide
  • Health hazard
  • Mattress textile
  • N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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