Endothelium- and smooth muscle-dependent vasodilator effects of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara: Focus on Ca2+ modulation

Purum Kang, Kang Hyun Ryu, Jeong Min Lee, Hyo Keun Kim, Geun Hee Seol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Neroli, the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara, is a well-characterized alleviative agent used to treat cardiovascular symptoms. However, because it has been found to have multiple effects, its mechanism of action requires further exploration. We sought to clarify the mechanism underlying the actions of neroli in mouse aorta. In aortic rings from mice precontracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha, neroli induced vasodilation. However, relaxation effect of neroli was decreased in endothelium-denuded ring or pre-incubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-Nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). And also, neroli-induced relaxation was also partially reversed by 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. In addition, neroli inhibited extracellular Ca2+-dependent, depolarization-induced contraction, an effect that was concentration dependent. Pretreatment with the non-selective cation channel blocker, Ni2+, attenuated neroli-induced relaxation, whereas the K+ channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride, had no effect. In the presence of verapamil, added to prevent Ca2+ influx via smooth muscle voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, neroli-induced relaxation was reduced by the ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor ruthenium red. Our findings further indicate that the endothelial component of neroli-induced vasodilation is partly mediated by the NO-sGC pathway, whereas the smooth muscle component involves modulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration through inhibition of cation channel-mediated extracellular Ca2+ influx and store-operated Ca2+ release mediated by the RyR signaling pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-471
Number of pages5
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2012R1A2A2A02007145 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.


  • Citrus aurantium L. var. amara
  • Endothelium
  • Vascular smooth muscle
  • Vasodilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


Dive into the research topics of 'Endothelium- and smooth muscle-dependent vasodilator effects of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara: Focus on Ca2+ modulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this