Energy efficiency maximization in mmWave wireless networks with 3D beamforming

Mahdi Baianifar, S. Mohammad Razavizadeh, Hossein Akhlaghpasand, Inkyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we address the problem of 3D beamforming (3DBF) in millimeter wave (mmWave) wireless networks. In particular, we study the impact of base station (BS) antenna tilt angle optimization on the energy efficiency (EE) of mmWave networks under two different scenarios: A homogeneous network consisting of multiple macro base stations (MBSs), and a heterogeneous network where several femto base stations are added within the coverage areas of the MBSs. First, by adopting a stochastic geometry approach, we analyze the coverage probability of both scenarios that incorporate 3DBF. Then, we derive the EE of the networks as a function of the MBS antenna tilt angle. Next, optimization problems are formulated to maximize the EE of the networks by optimizing the tilt angle. Since the computational complexity of the optimal solution is very high, near-optimal low-complexity methods are proposed for solving the optimization problems. Simulation results show that in the mmWave networks, the 3DBF technique with optimized tilt angle can considerably improve the EE of the network. Also, the proposed low complexity approach presents a performance close to the optimal solution but with a significant reduced complexity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8718092
Pages (from-to)125-135
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Communications and Networks
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received October 26, 2018; This paper is specially handled by EICs with the help of three anonymous reviewers in a fast manner. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation through the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (MSIP), Korean Government, under Grant 2017R1A2B3012316. M. Baianifar, S. M. Razavizadeh and H. Akhlaghpasand are with the School of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran, email:,, I. Lee is with the School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, email: S. M. Razavizadeh and I. Lee are corresponding authors. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/JCN.2019.000011

Publisher Copyright:
© 2011 KICS.


  • 3D beamforming
  • blockage effect
  • coverage probability
  • energy efficiency
  • heterogeneous network (HetNet)
  • mmWave network
  • stochastic geometry
  • tilt angle optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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