Enhanced electronic properties in mesoporous TiO2 via lithium doping for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

Fabrizio Giordano, Antonio Abate, Juan Pablo Correa Baena, Michael Saliba, Taisuke Matsui, Sang Hyuk Im, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Anders Hagfeldt, Michael Graetzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

742 Citations (Scopus)


Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies with their extraordinary progress in efficiency and the simple processes required to produce them. However, the frequent presence of a pronounced hysteresis in the current voltage characteristic of these devices arises concerns on the intrinsic stability of organo-metal halides, challenging the reliability of technology itself. Here, we show that n-doping of mesoporous TiO2 is accomplished by facile post treatment of the films with lithium salts. We demonstrate that the Li-doped TiO2 electrodes exhibit superior electronic properties, by reducing electronic trap states enabling faster electron transport. Perovskite solar cells prepared using the Li-doped films as scaffold to host the CH3 NH3 PbI3 light harvester produce substantially higher performances compared with undoped electrodes, improving the power conversion efficiency from 17 to over 19% with negligible hysteretic behaviour (lower than 0.3%).

Original languageEnglish
Article number10379
JournalNature communications
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 13
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.G. thanks the financial support from SNSF-NanoTera (SYNERGY), Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SYNERGY), CCEM-CH in the 9th call proposal 906: CONNECT PV and the SNSF NRP70 ‘Energy Turnaround’ and GRAPHENE project supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme under contract 604391 is gratefully acknowledged. A.A. has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 291771. We thank Aisin Cosmos R&D Co., Ltd, Japan for financial support.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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