Enhanced Frequency Support of MMC-MTDC Systems with Offshore Wind Plants Integration

Zicong Zhang, Gilsoo Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the increasing penetration of renewable energy generation in the power grid, there have been several actual cases of high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) systems replacing conventional high-voltage AC power transmission systems for long-distance power transmission. The widely used full-scale converter (FSC) wind turbines (type 4), unlike the traditional synchronous generators, cannot provide inertial constant support for system frequency stability owing to their special structural problem. Therefore, a control strategy that provides virtual inertia for a system using an HVDC inverter is proposed. Currently, this method is mostly used in a single HVDC transmission line. This study investigates the frequency stability of a modular multilevel converter-based multi-terminal HVDC combined with offshore wind power plants. An enhanced virtual inertia compensation strategy is proposed to improve the frequency stability of onshore AC systems. This study uses the multi-terminal HVDC network of the CIGRE benchmark to build a power grid model and simulate AC systems with different levels of robustness. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the reinforcement method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-717
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s) under exclusive licence to The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers.


  • CIGRE benchmark
  • Frequency stability
  • Modular multilevel-converter high-voltage direct-current (MMC-HVDC) transmission system
  • Multi-terminal HVDC (MMC-MTDC)
  • Offshore wind power plants
  • Virtual inertia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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