Enhanced glucose detection using enzyme-immobilized ZnO/ZnS core/sheath nanowires

Yun Mo Sung, Kyungmin Noh, Woo Chul Kwak, Tae Geun Kim

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36 Citations (Scopus)


The role of ZnS shell was explored in the enhancement of fluorescent glucose sensing of enzyme-conjugated ZnO/ZnS core/sheath nanowires. High-density ZnO nanowires were vertically grown on Si substrates by carbothermal method and they were coated with almost monolayer ZnS nanocrystals to obtain ZnO/ZnS core/sheath nanowire structures. The surface of ZnO nanowires and ZnO/ZnS nanowires was modified with mercapto-acetic acid (MAA) and MAA-terminated nanowires were activated by esterification of n-hydroxysulfo-succinimide (Sulfo-NHS). Glucose oxidase (GOx), an enzyme, could be covalently combined with NHS-terminated nanowires to form ZnO-MAA-GOx and ZnO/ZnS-MAA-GOx bioconjugates. Due to the surface passivation of ZnO by ZnS sheath, ZnO/ZnS-MAA-GOx showed increased band-edge emission compared to ZnO-MAA-GOx. Glucose detection characteristics were investigated monitoring the change in PL intensity (∼380 nm) and the results were compared to each other. Both samples showed almost linear increase in PL intensity with glucose concentration from ∼3.51 to ∼24.1 mM. However, ZnO/ZnS-MAA-GOx showed about two-times higher sensitivity to glucose and lower detection limit (0.14 mM) compared to ZnO-MAA-GOx (0.23 mM). This is most possibly due to more effective electron injection into the conduction band of ZnO nanowires, arising from the passivation of surface defects and surface dangling bonds of ZnO by ZnS sheath formation. Also, both ZnO-MAA-GOx and ZnO/ZnS-MAA-GOx showed fast glucose response time of <10 and <5 s, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-459
Number of pages7
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan 3

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korean Government ( 2011-0002789 ) (Y.-M. Sung). This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korean Government (MEST) ( 2011-0028769 ) (T.G. Kim). Finally authors thank Dr. H.S. Baik at Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) for providing the access to their HRTEM.


  • Biosensor
  • Enzyme
  • Glucose
  • Nanowires
  • Photoluminescence
  • ZnO/ZnS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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