Enhancing the phase stability of formamidinium lead triiodide by addition of calcium chloride

Jin Hyuck Heo, Nang Mya Su Aung, Seok Yeong Hong, Bum Jun Park, Sang Hyuk Im

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) with stable black perovskite phase and without significantly changing its bandgap is demonstrated by the incorporation of CaCl2. More incorporated CaCl2 in FAPbI3 creates a desirable crystal structure, satisfying the Goldschmidt tolerance factor, and thereby stabilizing black perovskite phase under ambient conditions. However, more incorporated CaCl2 in FAPbI3 is likely to degrade the perovskite due to its hygroscopic characteristics. In addition, the incorporated CaCl2 in FAPbI3 solution reduces solubility, causing the formation of smaller crystal grains and pinholes due to quick precipitation during the non-solvent dripping crystallization process. Accordingly, 5 % CaCl2 incorporated FAPbI3 films have the best phase stability and solar cell performance with 18.0 % of power conversion efficiency at 1 sun condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number085002
JournalECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Basic Science Research Program (No. 2021R1A5A6002853), Nano-Material Technology Development Program (No. 2017M3A7B4041696)) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) (No. 20183010013820)).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Electrochemical Society (“ECS”).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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