Enzymatic hydrolysis increases ginsenoside content in Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) and its biotransformation under hydrostatic pressure

Hyo Won Kim, Sung Hee Han, Seog Won Lee, Hyeon Son Choi, Hyung Joo Suh, Ki Bae Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are common processing techniques in the extraction of active compounds from food materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis combined with HHP treatments on ginsenoside metabolites in red ginseng. RESULTS: The yield and changes in the levels of polyphenol and ginsenoside were measured in red ginseng treated with commercial enzymes such as Ultraflo L, Viscozyme, Cytolase PCL5, Rapidase and Econase E at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa), 50 MPa, and 100 MPa. β-Glucosidase activity of Cytolase was the highest at 4258.2 mg−1, whereas Viscozyme showed the lowest activity at 10.6 mg−1. Pressure of 100 MPa did not affect the stability or the activity of the β-glucosidase. Treatment of red ginseng with Cytolase and Econase at 100 MPa significantly increased the dry weight and polyphenol content of red ginseng, compared with treatments at 0.1 MPa and 50 MPa (P < 0.05). The amounts of ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolites derived from red ginseng processed using Cytolase were higher than those derived from red ginseng treated with the other enzymes. Treatment with Cytolase also significantly increased the skin and intestinal permeability of red ginseng-derived polyphenols. CONCLUSION: Cytolase could be useful as an enzymatic treatment to enhance the yield of bioactive compounds from ginseng under HHP. In addition, ginsenoside metabolites obtained by Cytolase hydrolysis combined with HHP are functional substances with increased intestinal and skin permeability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6806-6813
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Society of Chemical Industry


  • cytolase
  • enzymatic process
  • ginsenoside metabolites
  • high hydrostatic pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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