Evaluation and Classification of Supraorbital Nerve Emerging Patterns

Ryun Ha, Seon Tae Kim, Junsun Ryu, Il Gyu Kang, Jae Goo Kang, Chang Sub Uhm, Im Joo Rhyu, Yun Hee Choi, Sarina Rajbhandari, Taek Keun Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Numerous significant variations in the supraorbital nerve (SON) pass through the notches and foramina. During endoscopic forehead lifting, the passage and the location of the nerve against the frontal bone render it susceptible to injury, resulting in diminished or absent sensation in the corresponding location. We attempted to obtain accurate knowledge of the SON emergence routes. Methods: Data of patients who underwent an endoscopic forehead lift in a plastic surgery clinic between November 2015 and August 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Deep and superficial branch pathways of SONs were identified and compared according to side and gender. We also classified the nerve patterns into six types. Results: Altogether, 942 patients (1884 SON cases) were evaluated. Out of the patients, 86 patients were male, and 856 were female. The overall mean age was 48.6 (± 13.1) years. In the deep branches, 49% came from the notch, and 51% came from the foramen. In the superficial branches, 67% came from the notch, and 33% of superficial branches came from the foramen. Unlike the deep branch, superficial branches from the notch were significant. Deep and superficial branches of male patients were much more notched than those of female patients. Branches emerged together in 56% and separately in 44% of the cases. Conclusion: The absolute number of SON notches was higher than that of SON foramina. This study with the largest number of SON cases will help surgeons understand the variation and course of SON. Level of Evidence IV: This journal requires that authors 38assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full 39description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, 40please refer to the Table of Contents or the online 41Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)304-311
Number of pages8
JournalAesthetic Plastic Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Feb

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2023.


  • Classification
  • Forehead lift
  • Supraorbital nerve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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