Evaluation of grounded isometric interface for whole-body navigation in virtual environments

Bong Gyu Jang, Gerard Jounghyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Whole-body interaction is an effective way to promote the level of presence and immersion in virtual reality systems. In this paper, we introduce "G-Bar," a grounded isometric interaction device that naturally induces whole-body interaction without complicated sensing and active haptic feedback apparatus. G-Bar takes advantage of the significant passive reaction force feedback sensed throughout the body to produce an enhanced level of presence/immersion and possibly even task performance. For detailed investigation in the contributing factors, two experiments were carried out to assess the comparative effectiveness of G-Bar to the following: (1) grounded but isotonic device (with force feedback and without); and (2) nongrounded handheld devices (both isotonic and isometric). The results showed that the G-Bar induced significantly higher presence and competitive task performance (fixed velocity navigation) than the isotonic (grounded or handheld) and nongrounded isometric interfaces. Compared with the grounded isometric device with active force feedback, G-Bar produced competitive performance. In particular, the analysis of the subjective evaluation revealed a high correlation between the level of presence and whole-body interaction. On the other hand, whole-body experience was not induced as much with just the active force-feedback devices. Thus, for appropriate tasks, the grounded isometric interface can be a viable alternative to expensive and mechanically limiting active force-feedback devices in enhancing user experience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)561-575
Number of pages15
JournalComputer Animation and Virtual Worlds
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sept 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


  • Grounded interface
  • Immersion
  • Isometric interface
  • Presence
  • Whole-body interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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