Exploration of metal-free 2D electrocatalysts toward the oxygen electroreduction

Joyjit Kundu, Taehyun Kwon, Kwangyeol Lee, Sang Il Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The advancement of economical and readily available electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) holds paramount importance in the advancement of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Recently, 2D non-metallic materials have obtained substantial attention as viable alternatives for ORR catalysts due to their manifold advantages, encompassing low cost, ample availability, substantial surface-to-volume ratio, high conductivity, exceptional durability, and competitive activity. The augmented ORR performances observed in metal-free 2D materials typically arise from heteroatom doping, defects, or the formation of heterostructures. Here, the authors delve into the realm of electrocatalysts for the ORR, pivoting around metal-free 2D materials. Initially, the merits of metal-free 2D materials are explored and the reaction mechanism of the ORR is dissected. Subsequently, a comprehensive survey of diverse metal-free 2D materials is presented, tracing their evolutionary journey from fundamental concepts to pragmatic applications in the context of ORR. Substantial importance is given on the exploration of various strategies for enhancing metal-free 2D materials and assessing their impact on inherent material performance, including electronic properties. Finally, the challenges and future prospects that lie ahead for metal-free 2D materials are underscored, as they aspire to serve as efficient ORR electrocatalysts.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors. Exploration published by Henan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.


  • 2D materials
  • electrocatalysts
  • non-metal
  • oxygen reduction reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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