Exploring spatio-temporal change in global land cover using categorical intensity analysis

Munkhnasan Lamchin, Thomas Mumuni Bilintoh, Woo Kyun Lee, Altansukh Ochir, Chul Hee Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The rates of land degradation and urbanization has increased worldwide during the past century. Herein, we evaluate the spatio-temporal changes in global land cover via categorical intensity analysis of the European Space Agency’s climate change initiative (ESA-CCI) data for the period 1992 to 2018. Specifically, we evaluated intensity analysis at the category level for five time intervals, namely 1992–1997, 1997–2002, 2002–2007 and 2007–2012, 2012–2018. We also, evaluate the decrease and increase in the land cover at continental and climate zone. The study evaluates the following land cover categories: Cropland, Forest, SGO (Shrubland, Grassland, and Other), Urban, Bare areas, and WIS (Water, ice, and snow). After accuracy assessment, the global land-cover map for 2009 from the GlobCover data is selected, and a reclassified version of this map is used as a verification tool for comparison with the reclassified study data. The analysis of changes over the last 26 years shows that the loss for Cropland are dormant during the first and second time intervals, but active during the third, fourth, and fifth time intervals. By contrast, Forest experienced loss during all time intervals, and SGO experienced active loss only during the second time interval. Urban is the only category that experienced active gain during all time intervals. The present study also indicates that urbanization has and converted land in temperate regions during the past 26 years. Additionally, in South America and the tropical regions, the expansion of Cropland is the largest contributor to the decline in Forests and SGO.

Original languageEnglish
Article number994713
JournalFrontiers in Forests and Global Change
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct 11

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Lamchin, Bilintoh, Lee, Ochir and Lim.


  • categorical analysis
  • global land cover
  • intensity analysis
  • land cover change
  • loss and gain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Ecology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation


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