Iprodione is a well-known fungicide used in the cultivation of strawberries, tomatoes, grapes, and green beans. In recent studies, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and endocrine toxicity of iprodione have been reported. Although reproductive toxicity of iprodione has been identified in animal studies, its effects are limited to male fertility. Also, the toxic effects of iprodione on pregnancy, especially the implantation process, have not been elucidated. This study demonstrated a series of cytotoxic responses of iprodione along with the alteration of implantation-related gene expression in porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and luminal epithelium (pLE) cells. In this study, iprodione suppressed cell viability, proliferation, and migration of these cells. Iprodione induced G1 phase arrest and attenuated spheroid formation by pTr and pLE cells. Furthermore, iprodione caused mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species generation, which resulted in an increase in mitochondrial calcium levels. Consequently, DNA damage and apoptotic cell death were induced by iprodione treatment in pTr and pLE cells. This stress-induced cell death was mediated by alterations in intracellular signal transduction, including the PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways. This finding suggests the potential of iprodione to impair the implantation capacity by exerting cytotoxic effects on fetal and maternal cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Education ( 2020R1A6A3A13075810 ) and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government ( MSIT ) ( 2021R1A2C2005841 & 2021R1C1C1009807 ).
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis