Extracellular ATP is generated by ATP synthase complex in adipocyte lipid rafts

Bong Woo Kim, Hyo Jung Choo, Joong Won Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Young Gyu Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Citations (Scopus)


Mitochondrial biogenesis is known to accompany adipogenesis to complement ATP and acetyl-CoA required for lipogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that mitochondrial proteins such as ATP synthase α and β, and cytochrome c were highly expressed during the 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes. Fully-differentiated adipocytes showed a significant increase of mitochondria under electron microscopy. Analysis by immunofluorescence, cellular fractionation, and surface biotinylation demonstrated the elevated levels of ATP synthase complex found not only in the mitochondria but also on the cell surface (particularly lipid rafts) of adipocytes. High rate of ATP (more than 30 μM) synthesis from the added ADP and Pi in the adipocyte media suggests the involvement of the surface ATP synthase complex for the exracellular ATP synthesis. In addition, this ATP synthesis was significantly inhibited in the presence of oligomycin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), an ATP synthase uncoupler. Decrease of extracellular ATP synthesis in acidic but not in basic media further indicates that the surface ATP synthase may also be regulated by proton gradient through the plasma membrane.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)476-485
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental and Molecular Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Oct 31


  • ATP synthase complex
  • Adipocytes
  • Membrane microdomains
  • Mitochondria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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