Face-on Orientation Matches Vertical Organic Electrochemical Transistors for High Transconductance and Superior Non-Volatility

Bingjun Wang, Yuxin Kong, Sen Zhang, Ziang Wu, Shijie Wang, Jiaqi Ren, Han Young Woo, Yuxiang Li, Wei Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The recently developed vertical structure of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) can integrate volatile and non-volatile functions into one reconfigurable device, making it highly promising. However, comparing with the conventional planar OECT (c-OECT), the understanding of vertical OECT (v-OECT) working principles and device engineering strategies is still lacking, impeding rational optimization. Since a major difference between c- and v-OECTs is their charge transport directionality, which is highly influenced by crystallite orientations, the orientation–device structure match thus becomes an important yet outstanding topic for OECTs. Herein, using an n-type small molecule IDIC-MEG, investigate how much impact such match can have on OECT performance. The IDIC-MEG c-OECT fails to work due to the seriously hindered in-plane electron transport by face-on orientation. Surprisingly, simply changing the device structure from planar to vertical allows the resultant v-OECT to exhibit the highest reported transconductance (46.3 mS) among all small-molecule OECTs, thanks to the match between face-on orientation and the vertical structure. Such match also leads to excellent non-volatility, including highly predictable programmability and good operational stability. This work, for the first time, explicitly demonstrates the significance of orientation–device structure match for OECT optimization, establishing new guidelines for achieving high-performance volatile and non-volatile OECTs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2312822
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr 3

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • charge transport
  • crystallite orientations
  • n-type small molecules
  • non-volatility
  • transconductance
  • vertical organic electrochemical transistors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


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