Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) with a spinel structure has attracted considerable attention as a promising anode material for application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high stability and long cycle life. However, the rate characteristics of the battery deteriorate due to its low electronic conductivity. In this study, a uniform nanocomposite was easily obtained by complexing bulk LTO particles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via mechanofusion. Additionally, without using hazardous reagents, the surface of the LTO/CNT nanocomposites could be easily fluorinated via a simple post-treatment using ammonium fluoride (NH4F). It was demonstrated that the degree of fluorination of the LTO/CNT nanocomposites could be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of NH4F. The surface fluorinated-LTO/CNT nanocomposites, in which the main strategies for improving electrical conductivity were introduced simultaneously, showed excellent electrochemical performance as anodes for LIBs. In particular, the optimized surface fluorinated-LTO/CNT nanocomposites not only exhibited a high specific capacity of 170.2 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C, but also maintained a capacity of ∼140 mAh g−1 at a high rate of 20 C, which was almost 2.3 times higher than that of bulk LTO particles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Fundamental R&D program funded by the Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology (KICET) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), Republic of Korea (Project No. KPP22009). This work was also supported by the Technology Innovation Program (20010960) funded by the MOTIE, Republic of Korea.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Lithium-ion batteries
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Chemistry
- Condensed Matter Physics
- General Physics and Astronomy
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films