Factors associated with clinical outcomes in patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage

Sang Hoon Lee, Kyung Jae Park, Dong Hyuk Park, Shin Hyuk Kang, Jung Yul Park, Yong Gu Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is an uncommon type of intracerebral hemorrhage. Owing to its rarity, the clinical and radiological factors affecting outcomes in patients with PIVH have not been widely studied. Material/Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 112 patients (mean age 53 years) treated for PIVH at our institution from January 2004 to December 2014. Clinical and radiological parameters were analyzed 3 months after initial presentation to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes, as assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (favorable ≥4, unfavorable <4). Results: Of the 99 patients who underwent angiography, causative vascular abnormalities were found in 46%, and included Moyamoya disease, arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral aneurysm. At 3 months after initial presentation, 64% and 36% of patients were in the favorable and unfavorable outcome groups, respectively. The mortality rate was 19%. However, most survivors had no or mild deficits. Age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), modified Graeb score, and various radiological parameters reflecting ventricular dilatation were significantly different between the groups. Specifically, a GCS score of less than 13 (p=0.015), a SAPS II score of less than 33 (p=0.039), and a dilated fourth ventricle (p=0.043) were demonstrated to be independent predictors of an unfavorable clinical outcome. Conclusions: In this study we reveal independent predictors of poor outcome in primary intraventricular hemorrhage patients, and show that nearly half of the patients in our study had predisposing vascular abnormalities. Routine angiography is recommended in the evaluation of PIVH to identify potentially treatable etiologies, which may enhance long-term prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1412
Number of pages12
JournalMedical Science Monitor
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Mar 22
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (NRF-2013R1A1A1006032)

Publisher Copyright:
© Med Sci Monit.


  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Cerebral ventricles
  • Intracranial aneurysm
  • Intracranial arteriovenous malformations
  • Moyamoya disease
  • Treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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