In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from UV to blue, green-yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by an NIH Director's Transformative Research Award (NS081707 to J.A.R., R.W.G., and M.R.B.). This work was also supported by the EUREKA Fund (DA037152, DA033396; supplement to A.M.G.) and an K99/R00 Pathway to Independence Award (DA038725 to R.A.-H.). Y.R.J. and J.S.H. were supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (grant NRF-2016R1A2A1A05004935), and J.S.H. also thanks the KU-KIST graduate school program of Korea University. Z.X. and X.F. acknowledge support from the National Basic Research Program of China (grant 2015CB351900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11402134 and 11320101001). Y.H. acknowledges the support from NSF (grants DMR-1121262, CMMI-1300846, and CMMI-1400169) and the NIH (grant R01EB019337). A.D.M. was supported by a McDonnell Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Postdoctoral Fellowship, and V.K.S. was supported by the Indian American Urological Association/Kailash Kedia, MD Research Scholar Fund. We would also like to thank Karl Deisseroth (Stanford) for sharing ChR2 with us, and Ed Boyden (MIT) for Chrimson with us.
© 2017 Elsevier Inc.
- near-field communication
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