Fluorine-induced surface modification to obtain stable and low energy loss zinc oxide/perovskite interface for photovoltaic application

Vignesh Murugadoss, Dae Yun Kang, Won Jun Lee, Il Gyu Jang, Tae Geun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Despite its superior optoelectronic properties, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) as an electron transport layer (ETL) is limited compared to that of TiO2 and SnO2 due to its chemical instability with perovskite. Although several approaches have been presented to alleviate this instability, the use of all-metal halides has not been reported. In this study, we develop stable ZnO/perovskite interfaces through a single-step post-annealing surface modification. The ZnO surface is modified using ammonium fluoride (NH4F) solutions with different concentrations, thereby optimizing the ETL/perovskite interface to simultaneously reduce the loss and increase the stability while maintaining the photoconversion efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of the fluorine concentration on the physical, chemical, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films is investigated. The photovoltaic performance of the planar perovskite solar cell fabricated using the surface-modified ZnO, as the ETL is nearly three times higher than that of the cell obtained using the control. The proposed technique can serve as a facile and holistic approach to enhance the chemical stability and device performance in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications, irrespective of the ETL and perovskite materials. Graphical abstract: Fluorine-induced surface modification passivates surface defects on the ZnO surface, which improves the photovoltaic performance and ZnO/perovskite interface stability [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1385-1395
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Composites and Hybrid Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant (No. 2016R1A3B1908249) funded by the Korean government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Fluorination
  • Perovskite
  • Solar cell
  • Stable interface
  • Surface modification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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